Manpower Planning which is also called as Human Resource Planning consists of putting right number of people, right kind of people at the right place, right time, doing the right things for which they are suited for the achievement of goals of the organization. Human Resource Planning has got an important place in the arena of industrialization. Human Resource Planning has to be a systems approach and is carried out in a set procedure. The procedure is as follows:
- Analysing the current manpower inventory
- Making future manpower forecasts
- Developing employment programmes
- Design training programmes
Steps in Manpower Planning
- Analysing the current manpower inventory- Before a manager makes forecast of future manpower, the current manpower status has to be analysed. For this the following things have to be noted-
- Type of organization
- Number of departments
- Number and quantity of such departments
- Employees in these work units
Once these factors are registered by a manager, he goes for the future forecasting.
- Making future manpower forecasts- Once the factors affecting the future manpower forecasts are known, planning can be done for the future manpower requirements in several work units.
The Manpower forecasting techniques commonly employed by the organizations are as follows:
- Expert Forecasts: This includes informal decisions, formal expert surveys and Delphi technique.
- Trend Analysis: Manpower needs can be projected through extrapolation (projecting past trends), indexation (using base year as basis), and statistical analysis (central tendency measure).
- Work Load Analysis: It is dependent upon the nature of work load in a department, in a branch or in a division.
- Work Force Analysis: Whenever production and time period has to be analysed, due allowances have to be made for getting net manpower requirements.
- Other methods: Several Mathematical models, with the aid of computers are used to forecast manpower needs, like budget and planning analysis, regression, new venture analysis.
- Developing employment programmes- Once the current inventory is compared with future forecasts, the employment programmes can be framed and developed accordingly, which will include recruitment, selection procedures and placement plans.
- Design training programmes- These will be based upon extent of diversification, expansion plans, development programmes,etc. Training programmes depend upon the extent of improvement in technology and advancement to take place. It is also done to improve upon the skills, capabilities, knowledge of the workers.
Importance of Manpower Planning
- Key to managerial functions- The four managerial functions, i.e., planning, organizing, directing and controlling are based upon the manpower. Human resources help in the implementation of all these managerial activities. Therefore, staffing becomes a key to all managerial functions.
- Efficient utilization- Efficient management of personnels becomes an important function in the industrialization world of today. Seting of large scale enterprises require management of large scale manpower. It can be effectively done through staffing function.
- Motivation- Staffing function not only includes putting right men on right job, but it also comprises of motivational programmes, i.e., incentive plans to be framed for further participation and employment of employees in a concern. Therefore, all types of incentive plans becomes an integral part of staffing function.
- Better human relations- A concern can stabilize itself if human relations develop and are strong. Human relations become strong trough effective control, clear communication, effective supervision and leadership in a concern. Staffing function also looks after training and development of the work force which leads to co-operation and better human relations.
- Higher productivity- Productivity level increases when resources are utilized in best possible manner. higher productivity is a result of minimum wastage of time, money, efforts and energies.This is possible through the staffing and it's related activities ( Performance appraisal, training and development, remuneration)
Need of Manpower Planning
Manpower Planning is a two-phased process because manpower planning not only analyses the current human resources but also makes manpower forecasts and thereby draw employment programmes. Manpower Planning is advantageous to firm in following manner:
- Shortages and surpluses can be identified so that quick action can be taken wherever required.
- All the recruitment and selection programmes are based on manpower planning.
- It also helps to reduce the labour cost as excess staff can be identified and thereby overstaffing can be avoided.
- It also helps to identify the available talents in a concern and accordingly training programmes can be chalked out to develop those talents.
- It helps in growth and diversification of business. Through manpower planning, human resources can be readily available and they can be utilized in best manner.
- It helps the organization to realize the importance of manpower management which ultimately helps in the stability of a concern.